Britain's monument culture obscures a history of white supremacy and colonial violence

The Conversation 10.06.2020

From single statues to elaborate multi-figure designs, monuments represent a visual culture that has been mobilised as a means to celebrate and justify white supremacy throughout history. To this end, they did not solely rely on sculptural statues of colonial “heroes” such as Edward Colston, but also other types of visual communication to misrepresent empire as a noble and heroic pursuit."



A History of Violence: Joseph Nollekens’ First Design for the Monument to Three Captains, 1782–93.

Sculpture Journal. Vol. 28, Issue 1 (Spring 2019): 103-121

 This article repositions the monument to Three Captains as a significant memorial, which encapsulates sculpted allegory’s troubled reputation in the eighteenth century, and the general public’s curious fixation with graphic reports of military violence.


Allegorical Invaders? British masculinities and sculpture in the wake of Anglo-French conflict during the nineteenth century

Conference - 'Anxious Forms: Masculinity in the Long Nineteenth Century’, Glasgow University. October, 2016

This paper uncovered the nationalistic and often xenophobic debate over “foreign” allegory among the patriarchal artistic elite of Britain in the eighteenth century; arguing that it represented a pivotal moment in the history of British masculinity in the wake of the Anglo-French wars.



The Marble Index: Roubiliac and Sculptural Portraiture in Eighteenth-Century Britain, by Malcolm Baker

Visual Culture in Britain. Vol. 17 (2016): 120-123



Art versus industry? New Perspectives on Visual and Industrial Cultures in Nineteenth-century Britain, by Kate Nichols, Rebecca Wade and Gabriel Williams (eds.)

Sculpture Journal, Vol. 26.1 (2017): 125-27


This page contains a selection of my published research, including articles, book reviews and media along with talks and papers. If you would like to read something but do not have access, please email me and I will happily send a PDF copy where available. 


The Confederate statues that have been overlooked: Anonymous women

The Washington Post  10.07.2020

How allegorical representations of women on monuments helped weave white supremacy into the fabric of everyday life.

Members of the United Daughters of the C


‘Sculpting Heroes: David d’Angers’s Le Jeune Barra (1838) and Edward Onslow Ford’s monument to Percy Bysshe Shelley (1893)’

Church Monuments Society Journal 30 (2015): 191–200.

This article related Edward Onslow Ford's monument to Percy Bysshe Shelley (1893) to David d'Angers's sculpture Le Jeune Barra (1838), arguing that biographic and artistic affinities between the subjects and sculptors form the basis for a re-interpretation of Ford's monument and its position within nineteenth-century sculpture.  

Shelley 2_edited.jpg


Burning Women: Richard Westmacott’s 'Abolition of the Suttee' and Female Immolation in Nineteenth-Century Print Culture

Conference - Mourning and Morbidity: Death in British art, University of York. March, 2015

This paper explored visual and theoretical overlaps between the pedestal of Richard Westmacott's monument to William Bentinck (1840) in Kolkata, and representations of Sati - the largely historical Hindu practice of forced or voluntary immolation on the pyre of a deceased husband - in British print culture in the nineteenth century.